Hacking tutorial, Tutorial

A BEGINNERS GUIDE TO Hacking Unix

   **************************************  *       A BEGINNERS GUIDE TO:        *  *          H A C K I N G             *  *                                    *  *                U N I X             *  *                                    *  *          BY JESTER SLUGGO          *  * (NOTE: THIS IS WRITTEN IN 40 COL.) *  *         WRITTEN 10/08/85           *  **************************************    IN THE FOLLOWING FILE, ALL REFERENCES  MADE TO THE NAME UNIX, MAY ALSO BE  SUBSTITUTED TO THE XENIX OPERATING  SYSTEM.    BRIEF HISTORY:  BACK IN THE EARLY  SIXTIES, DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF  THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS AT MIT,  A GROUP OF PROGRAMMERS STUDYING THE  POTENTIAL OF COMPUTERS, DISCOVERED  THEIR ABILITY OF PERFORMING TWO OR  MORE TASKS SIMULTANEOUSLY.  BELL  LABS, TAKING NOTICE OF THIS DISCOVERY,  PROVIDED FUNDS FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENTAL  SCIENTISTS TO INVESTIGATE INTO THIS  NEW FRONTIER.  AFTER ABOUT 2 YEARS OF  DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH, THEY PRODUCED  AN OPERATING SYSTEM THEY CANLMD “UNIX”.    SIXTIES TO CURRENT:  DURING THIS TIME  BELL SYSTEMS INSTALLED THE UNIX SYSTEM  TO PROVIDE THEIR COMPUTER OPERATORS  WITH THE ABILITY TO MULTITASK SO THAT  THEY COULD BECOME MORE PRODUCTIVE,  AND EFFICIENT.  ONE OF THE SYSTEMS THEY PUT ON THE UNIX SYSTEM WAS CALLED  “ELMOS”. THROUGH ELMOS MANY TASKS (I.E. BILLING,AND INSTALLATION RECORDS) COULD  BE DONE BY MANY PEOPLE USING THE SAME  MAINFRAME.    NOTE: COSMOS IS ACCESSED THROUGH THE  ELMOS SYSTEM.    CURRENT:  TODAY, WITH THE DEVELOPMENT  OF MICRO COMPUTERS, SUCH MULTITASKING  CAN BE ACHIEVED BY A SCALED DOWN  VERSION OF UNIX (BUT JUST AS  POWERFUL).  MICROSOFT,SEEING THIS  DEVELOPMENT, OPTED TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN  UNIX LIKE SYSTEM FOR THE IBM LINE OF  PC/XT’S.  THEIR RESULT THEY CALLED  XENIX (PRONOUNCED ZEE-NICKS).  BOTH  UNIX AND XENIX CAN BE EASILY INSTALLED
ON IBM PC’S AND OFFER THE SAME FUNCTION
(JUST 2 DIFFERENT VENDORS).
 
NOTE: DUE TO THE MANY DIFFERENT
VERSIONS OF UNIX (BERKLEY UNIX,
BELL SYSTEM III, AND SYSTEM V
THE MOST POPULAR) MANY COMMANDS
FOLLOWING MAY/MAY NOT WORK. I HAVE
WRITTEN THEM IN SYSTEM V ROUTINES.
UNIX/XENIX OPERATING SYSTEMS WILL
BE CONSIDERED IDENTICAL SYSTEMS BELOW.
 
HOW TO TELL IF/IF NOT YOU ARE ON A
UNIX SYSTEM:  UNIX SYSTEMS ARE QUITE
COMMON SYSTEMS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
THEIR SECURITY APPEARS AS SUCH:
 
LOGIN;     (OR LOGIN;)
PASSWORD:
 
WHEN HACKING ON A UNIX SYSTEM IT IS
BEST TO USE LOWERCASE BECAUSE THE UNIX
SYSTEM COMMANDS ARE ALL DONE IN LOWER-
CASE.
LOGIN; IS A 1-8 CHARACTER FIELD. IT IS
USUALLY THE NAME (I.E. JOE OR FRED)
OF THE USER, OR INITIALS (I.E. J.JONES
OR F.WILSON).  HINTS FOR LOGIN NAMES
CAN BE FOUND TRASHING THE LOCATION OF
THE DIAL-UP (USE YOUR CN/A TO FIND
WHERE THE COMPUTER IS).
PASSWORD: IS A 1-8 CHARACTER PASSWORD
ASSIGNED BY THE SYSOP OR CHOSEN BY THE
USER.
      COMMON DEFAULT LOGINS
   ————————–
   LOGIN;       PASSWORD:
   ROOT         ROOT,SYSTEM,ETC..
   SYS          SYS,SYSTEM
   DAEMON       DAEMON
   UUCP         UUCP
   TTY          TTY
   TEST         TEST
   UNIX         UNIX
   BIN          BIN
   ADM          ADM
   WHO          WHO
   LEARN        LEARN
   UUHOST       UUHOST
   NUUCP        NUUCP
 
IF YOU GUESS A LGIN NAME AND YOU ARE
NOT ASKED FOR A PASSWORD, AND HAVE
ACCESSED TO THE SYSTEM, THEN YOU HAVE
WHAT IS KNOWN AS A NON-GIFTED ACCOUNT.
IF YOU GUESS A CORRECT LOGIN AND PASS-
WORD, THEN YOU HAVE A USER ACCOUNT.
AND, IF YOU GUESS THE ROOT PASSWORD,
THEN YOU HAVE A “SUPER-USER” ACCOUNT.
ALL UNIX SYSTEMS HAVE THE FOLLOWING
INSTALLED TO THEIR SYSTEM:
ROOT, SYS, BIN, DAEMON, UUCP, ADM
ONCE YOU ARE IN THE SYSTEM, YOU WILL
GET A PROMPT. COMMON PROMPTS ARE:
 
$
%
#
 
BUT CAN BE JUST ABOUT ANYTHING THE
SYSOP OR USER WANTS IT TO BE.
 
THINGS TO DO WHEN YOU ARE IN: SOME
OF THE COMMANDS THAT YOU MAY WANT TO
TRY FOLLOW BELOW:
 
WHO IS ON  (SHOWS WHO IS CURRENTLY
            LOGGED ON THE SYSTEM.)
WRITE NAME (NAME IS THE PERSON YOU
            WISH TO CHAT WITH)
      TO EXIT CHAT MODE TRY CTRL-D.
      EOT=END OF TRANSFER.
LS -A      (LIST ALL FILES IN CURRENT
            DIRECTORY.)
DU -A      (CHECKS AMOUNT OF MEMORY
            YOUR FILES USE;DISK USAGE)
CD\NAME    (NAME IS THE NAME OF THE
            SUB-DIRECTORY YOU CHOOSE)
CD\        (BRINGS YOUR HOME DIRECTORY
            TO CURRENT USE)
CAT NAME   (NAME IS A FILENAME EITHER
            A PROGRAM OR DOCUMENTATION
            YOUR USERNAME HAS WRITTEN)
      MOST UNIX PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN
      IN THE C LANGUAGE OR PASCAL
      SINCE UNIX IS A PROGRAMMERS’
      ENVIRONMENT.
ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS DONE ON THE
SYSTEM IS PRINT UP OR CAPTURE (IN A
BUFFER) THE FILE CONTAINING ALL USER
NAMES AND ACCOUNTS. THIS CAN BE DONE
BY DOING THE FOLLOWING COMMAND:
 
CAT /ETC/PASSWD
 
IF YOU ARE SUCCESSFUL YOU WILL A LIST
OF ALL ACCOUNTS ON THE SYSTEM.  IT
SHOULD LOOK LIKE THIS:
 
ROOT:HVNSDCF:0:0:ROOT DIR:/:
JOE:MAJDNFD:1:1:JOE COOL:/BIN:/BIN/JOE
HAL::1:2:HAL SMITH:/BIN:/BIN/HAL
 
THE “ROOT” LINE TELLS THE FOLLOWING
INFO :
LOGIN NAME=ROOT
HVNSDCF   = ENCRYPTED PASSWORD
0         = USER GROUP NUMBER
0         = USER NUMBER
ROOT DIR  = NAME OF USER
/         = ROOT DIRECTORY
 
IN THE JOE LOGIN, THE LAST PART
“/BIN/JOE ” TELLS US WHICH DIRECTORY
IS HIS HOME DIRECTORY (JOE) IS.
 
IN THE “HAL” EXAMPLE THE LOGIN NAME IS
FOLLOWED BY 2 COLONS, THAT MEANS THAT
THERE IS NO PASSWORD NEEDED TO GET IN
USING HIS NAME.
 
CONCLUSION:  I HOPE THAT THIS FILE
WILL HELP OTHER NOVICE UNIX HACKERS
OBTAIN ACCESS TO THE UNIX/XENIX
SYSTEMS THAT THEY MAY FIND. THERE IS
STILL WIDE GROWTH IN THE FUTURE OF
UNIX, SO I HOPE USERS WILL NOT ABUSE
ANY SYSTEMS (UNIX OR ANY OTHERS) THAT
THEY MAY HAPPEN ACROSS ON THEIR
JOURNEY ACROSS THE ELECTRONIC HIGHWAYS  OF AMERICA.  THERE IS MUCH MORE TO BE  LEARNED ABOUT THE UNIX SYSTEM THAT I  HAVE NOT COVERED.  THEY MAY BE FOUND  BY BUYING A BOOK ON THE UNIX SYSTEM  (HOW I LEARNED) OR IN THE FUTURE  I MAY WRITE A PART II TO THIS……..                   

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